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Miguel López de Legazpi also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico (other sources give the date as November 1, , and mention 'four ships and men'). Miguel López de Legazpi Date of Birth About Place of Birth Zumárraga, las yslas y poblaçiones que están reduçidas al serviçio de la magestad Real del.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in , and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were…. They destroyed the settlement and founded the fortress city of Intramuros in its place. Manila became the capital of the new colony. We invite you to take a different kind of stroll through the district, enjoying this recorded sound representation of Legazpi.
Along the route you can follow through the interactive space, you will hear the most interesting sounds from the neighbourhood or just everyday ones, organised in time depending on the time of day when they were captured.
As visitors, we generate part of that sound environment. We would like you to take part, playing with the cubes, selecting them and placing them in the installation, interacting with the sound environment.
The natives of Mindoro added also that the Spaniards were crazy to go to Page 66 Manilla with so small a force, and that they pitied us. They recounted so many wonders of Manilla that their tales seemed fabulous; they said that there were very large oared boats, each carrying three hundred rowers, besides the warriors; that the people were well armed and excellent bowmen; that the ships were well equipped with artillery, both large and small; and that any one of those vessels could attack two praus , and sink them when within range.
With these accounts the Moros tried to discourage the Spaniards; but the more they attempted to frighten them with such things the more desirous they all became to set foot in Manilla. In view of this, the master-of-camp did not wait for the full payment of what the Moros had promised; but, warning them to have the remainder ready upon his return, he left them on friendly terms, and set out for the town of Manilla with all his men. He left the port of Mindoro at midnight, and the next morning cast anchor before a small island lying between Mindoro and Lucon, where he remained two days waiting for the praus.
Meanwhile, having sufficient leisure, he crossed over to the shore of Lucon, which was about two leagues distant; and discovered in that same island a wide, spacious bay. The praus went forward, in company with one of the Moros belonging to the town of Balayan, who had offered their friendship. These Moros pointed out to Captain Juan de Salcedo, who went with the oared praus , the mouth of a river which led inland to a lake, called Bombon.
After the Moro guides from Balayan had gathered all the house commodities that they could store in their prau , they told the Spaniards that they wished to warn their own village, so that their people should not be anxious; and so they went away, leaving the Spaniards in that river. The master-of-camp took a different route with his junk, and cast anchor before the town of Balayan, two leagues from the river of Bombon. While anchored there, and while the master-of-camp was fretting over the non-appearance of the praus that sailed with him since now it was already two hours after nightfall , at that very time one of them, under command of Captain Juan de Salcedo, made its appearance.
He had been wounded in the leg by a poisoned arrow. Soon afterward, the other praus and vessels which had sailed in his company arrived. They reported to the master-of-camp that they had entered a narrow arm of the sea, which the land inward forms into a medium-sized lake, around which seemed to be many people and much cultivated land. The country seemed thickly populated and well tilled.
The master-of-camp del dating de legazpi as one desirous of peace, and in view of the orders of the governor to make peace with the said town of Menilla- in his answer, requested the messenger to tell his lord not to believe such reports, for hitherto he had not asked. Fernando Riquel; Manilla, June I9, A few days after the departure of the flagship from here, I heard that a Portuguese fleet was coming toward us. There they fought with Chamorro tribes and burned several huts. Meanwhile, the master-of-camp was so near them that they could have spit on. When a chief possesses one or two pairs of earrings of very fine gold, two bracelets, and a chain, Page 42 he will not trouble himself to look for any more gold. The praus went forward, in company with one of the Moros belonging to the town of Balayan, who had offered their friendship. Consequently, they die from hunger and other misfortunes. In this river of Bato was found some green pepper24 growing on trees as small as shrubs, with their clusters like agias. The latter bore a message from Rraxa Soliman, to the effect that he had been informed that a tribute was to be asked of him; and that, consequently, he would not allow the Spaniards to enter the river. The country seemed thickly populated and well tilled. They Page 41n have wines of many kinds: del dating de legazpi, made from palm-wine which is obtained from the cocoa-nut palm, and from the wild nipa palm ; pitarrilloswhich are the wines made from rice, millet, and borona; and other wines, made from sugar-cane. To mitigate flooding in these low-lying areas, the local government has built an urban drainage and flood control system consisting of dikes, canals, sea walls and three pumping stations located in Barangays San Roque, Bay-Bay and Victory Village. In order to attain this, the first and foremost thing to be attempted is colonization and settlement. The people there are very barbarous, while those others are civilized.
Captain Juan de Salcedo advanced farther up those waters, in search of a fortified place of which information had been received on the way thither—situated on both sides of the water, and thus very high and rugged, and suitable for laying ambuscades. This proved to be true; for suddenly, and without them being able to see any one, many arrows came flying through the air, one of which wounded Captain Juan de Salcedo in the leg; and many more would have been wounded had not the prau been supplied with canvas guards.
The arquebusiers immediately Page 68 hastened to their posts with their medicine, 7 and prevented the Moros from discharging another volley of arrows, which ceased at their coming. The captain secured an antidotal herb for his wound; and, seeing that the approach to the fort was too dangerous and that it was impossible to effect a landing, he went back to collect his praus , and to look for a shore where he could easily disembark.
A landing-place was found near the town; the men disembarked, and set out on foot in search of the Moros. The latter appeared in a broad plain, covered with grass about a hand-span high. The men were divided into two troops, in order to attack the Moros, who were shooting arrows as rapidly as they could, and wildly shouting. The Moros waited until the Spaniards began to hit their flanks with arquebuse bullets; and then, seeing the rage of their opponents, they took to flight.
Our men pursued them to the very gate of their town, where more than forty Moros fell under the fire from the arquebuses. The Spaniards entered the town, and set free two Chinamen, who were kept there in chains. They learned from these men the ostensible reason for their imprisonment, as follows.
Two Chinese ships had come to trade with the Moros in this river; but, hearing of our presence in Mindoro, they desired to betake themselves thither. The Moros would not allow them to go away. In the quarrel that ensued over the question of their departure, the Chinese fired a culverin from one of the ships and killed a Moro chief. The Moros assembled to avenge him, and overtook the Chinese as they were about to sail Page 69 out to sea through the estuary. It seems that the vessels were wrecked on certain shoals at the entrance to the estuary, and the Chinese with all their possessions fell into the power of the Moros, who inflicted on them a severe punishment—seizing them all, and putting them to death by inches in a most cruel manner, flaying their faces, and exposing them on reeds and mats.
When the Spaniards entered the town, they encountered not a few similar sights; and so recent was this deed that the flayed faces of the Chinese were still bleeding. Such was the account given by Captain Joan de Salcedo of what had occurred that day during his absence from the master-of-camp. The Balayan Moros who had come out peacefully detained the master-of-camp there for three or four days, giving him, little by little, some impure gold.
The latter, to avoid any further delay, decided to proceed to Manilla. Accordingly, he left these Moros, on peaceful terms, telling them to collect for his return what was lacking of the amount promised. Then he sailed along the coast toward Manilla, which was said to be three leagues from that town. The chiefs of this town of Balayan said that they wished to accompany the Spaniards one day's journey from their town, in order to avenge themselves for injuries and wrongs received at the hands of some neighboring communities on the coast called Tulayansi.
Therefore seven or eight praus of Moros went with us, and, when we reached that coast, two praus with white flags were seen, which advanced to the ship of the master-of-camp. Upon arriving there, they declared that they were natives of that coast, and that three towns, which could be seen with the naked Page 70 eye, wished to be our friends, and to give us tribute as the others did. The master-of-camp received them in peace, and assured them of friendship, notwithstanding that the Balayan Moros who came with us opposed him—saying that those people ought not to be admitted to friendship, because they were hostile to themselves for making peace with us first.
These arguments were of little avail, for the master-of-camp declared to both parties, that he had come to make friendship with all, and that his friends should have no differences between themselves; that, in case they did, it would be right for them to go to the Spaniards for the settlement of them; and that the one breaking with the other would be considered as enemy of the Spaniards.
When they heard this answer, both sides promised to abide by that decision, whereupon the master-of-camp dismissed them all, advising those natives who had lately offered their friendship, to have the tribute ready upon his return. According to the men of Balayan the enmity between these towns was because a Balayan vessel, on its return from Manilla, laden with merchandise, was driven by stormy weather on that coast of Tulay, and the natives showed them so excellent hospitality that, instead of helping and receiving them kindly, as neighbors should, they stole the goods of the Balayans and killed two of them, setting their heads on stakes.
Similar sights were noticed by the Spaniards in these towns, which still exhibited the cruelty of the deed. This coast is called Tulay. It has broad shoals and for this reason, as well as for the keen desire of all our men to set foot in Manilla, they remained Page 71 there only one night. Therefore at dawn they set out for the town called Menilla, which according to report was quite near.
They sailed along the coast, noting many bays and ports. There were some towns along the shore, whose inhabitants and citizens had sought other shelter, taking away the best of their possessions. The oared vessels came to shore, to see what these towns contained; but, finding no people, they sailed on. The large vessel was sailing about a league from the coast. Here they met some small boats, which the natives call tapaques. The soldiers of the praus took away a quantity of rice from the Moros, who did not defend themselves. The latter were allowed to depart in freedom, with their vessels. There were some who did defend themselves, and wounded two Spaniards and killed one of the friendly Indians who accompanied us.
The master-of-camp, as he was sailing in the large vessel, was unable to put a stop to these disorders, for they were occurring in his absence. When he learned of this, and that the Moro ships were coming from the bay of Menilla laden with provisions, he cast anchor in a small port; and there, calling together all the praus , censured the men for their disorderly conduct, ordering them not to depart from his ship from that time on. The next morning, having heard from a Moro captured in one of the tapaques that the town of Menilla was very near, all the vessels and praus set sail, taking the captured Moro as guide.
In the afternoon they came in sight of a very large bay, which formed a wide gulf.
It resembled a narrow Page 72 sea with its entrance at that point; but the guides affirmed that the land was one, and so it proved to be when we entered the bay. We had taken with us from Panae a Moro, a native of the town of Menilla, who has had intercourse with Spaniards for many years and is well known among them; for, when the camp was in Zebu, he always came to sell them provisions.
Before the master-of-camp started on this expedition from Panay, this Moro, and his wife and one son, had become Christians. He left his wife in Panay, and accompanied the master-of-camp as interpreter. He had taken with him his brother, who was likewise a native of Menilla. When we entered the bay, these men advised the master-of-camp not to cast anchor before the town of Menilla itself, for the coast was treacherous, and to enter the river it was necessary to wait for high tide.
They advised him to anchor in a small sheltered port, two leagues from the port of Menilla; and thence to send word to Raxa 8 Soliman, the greatest chief of all that country, with whom the terms of peace and friendship were to be made, and whose opinion was to be heeded.
Manila, capital and chief city of the Philippines. The praus went forward, in company with one of the Moros belonging to the town of Balayan, who had offered their friendship. This enterprising official has del dating de legazpi to New Spain plants of ginger, tamarind, cinnamon, and pepper; the first two are already flourishing. He declares that he and all his brethren regard the conquests made in these islands as unjust; and denounces the acts of injustice, oppression, and extortion committed against the helpless natives. I beseech your Excellency to be pleased to take the necessary measures in this respect; for it is certainly an important matter, upon which much depends. It pleased God that the capitana, making the return trip from Nueva Spafia 1 for the second time, should lose the way, and be driven upon the island of Guan, which is one of those called the Ladrones, where they were lost on account of the storm that struck them. The Moros, notwithstanding the great security given them by the master-of-camp, persisted in their hostile and del dating de legazpi attitude; and, even on account of the peace made, would not lay aside their weapons-on the contrary, the number. The islands are in a peaceful condition; the lands are allotted in such districts as have been pacified; there is promise of an abundant income from the tributary natives; and the gold mines are very rich. This is the relation that we have been able to get from these men—hitherto, outside of the ancients, the only description of the greatness of China that your Majesty. This was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. The Spaniards, who are not at all slothful, did not refuse the challenge offered them by the Chinese; on the contrary they boldly and fearlessly attacked the Chinese ships, and, with their usual courage, grappled .
The master-of-camp found this advice good, and felt at ease about the port; for he had been fretting over the possibility of finding shelter in all that bay, which, because it was so large and spacious, seemed almost harborless. Therefore we sailed straight to the harbor pointed out by the guides, reaching it two hours before nightfall. The land all around this bay, in the part where we anchored, and which the guides Page 73 declared to be the port of Menilla, was really marvelous.
It appeared to be tilled and cultivated. The slopes were smooth, and had but little herbage. In fact, so excellent indications have not been seen in this land, as were seen there. After the master-of-camp cast anchor in the small port, the praus and the frigate arrived there. It was decided that the captive Moro and a Cafre 9 interpreter should go to examine the port and its position, as well as to sound the mouth of the river.